Aortic Stenosis

Aortic Stenosis Rheumatic heart disease and calcification deposits due to age (senile calcific aortic stenosis) are the most common pathologic conditions associated with aortic stenosis.  Congenital malformations such as a bicuspid aortic valve with a small annulus, or unicuspid valve usually develop symptoms at an early age but occasionally surface in later years.  Calcification of […]

Cardiac Blood Flow & O2 Consumption

“The major vessels of the coronary circulation are the left main coronary that divides into left anterior descending and circumflex branches, and the right main coronary artery.” Source: Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts Richard E. Klabunde, PhD The major vessels of the coronary circulation are the left main coronary that divides into left anterior descending andcircumflex branches, and the right main coronary artery. […]

Myocardial Ischemia: The Best Timing for Engaging CPB for Revascularization

Editors Note: Having been in the field for awhile, and being an STS data coordinator, the timing of surgery for patients suffering from an acute evolving myocardial infarction (AEMI) has always intrigued me. The STS data form is very specific in tracking these intervals, and I am naturally curious as to what the impact on […]

Up Close & Personal: The Bental Procedure

Click images to enlarge (it’s definitely worth it) Editor’s Note: These amazing pictures are brought to you by Nadia Azuero, BS, CCP, LP- who is currently 3/4 way through Medical school. = Nadia joined the “Surfers team as an Associate Editor- in charge of Media &  Photography. Nadia is very gifted, as a skilled clinician, a […]

The Avalon Bi-Caval Dual Lumen Catheter

Have you used a percutaneous venous cannula like this? The AVALONELITE :  Bi-Caval Dual Lumen Catheter (Click image to visit website) A Discussion on Cannula Positioning Proper cannula positioning in single site veno-venous extracorporeal life support (vv-ELS) is cumbersome and necessitates image guidance to obtain a safe and stable position within the heart and the […]


CNS & CPB The major postoperative neurological complication associated with open-heart surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass is stroke, which is defined as a sudden onset of a focal deficit of the central nervous system lasting longer than 24 hours.  While this clinical finding occurs in approximately 1-5% of cardiac surgery patients, 70% of cerebrovascular sequelae occur […]

Intracardiac Pressures

Intracardiac Pressures = Right ventricular systolic pressure Right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) can be easily assessed in most subjects who present some degree of tricuspid regurgitation. The velocity recorded across the regurgitant jet corresponds to the right ventricular-right atrial gradient (RV-RA ΔP), so that, this value added to mean right atrial pressure (RAP) represents the […]

Intracardiac Shunts

Principles of Intracardiac Shunts Significant hypoxemia can result from right-to-left intracardiac shunting through a patent foramen ovale, an atrial septal defect or a ventricular septal defect. Pulmonary embolus, congenital heart disease and pericardial tamponade are well-recognized causes of right-to-left shunting. With the continued presence of a congenital defect of the cardiac septum or great vessels […]

Mitral Insufficiency

Mitral Insufficiency Six anatomical components must mesh synchronously to insure proper function of the mitral valve.  Disruption of the kinetic interrelationship between the left ventricular wall, the left atrial wall, valve leaflets, annulus, chordae tendineae, and papillary muscles, may lead to dysfunction of the valve.  Chronic mitral valve insufficiency (regurgitation) most often results from rheumatic […]

Right Ventricular Function

Right Ventricle The right ventricle is one of four chambers (two atria and two ventricles) in the human heart. It receives deoxygenated blood from the right atrium via the tricuspid valve, and pumps it into the pulmonary artery via the pulmonary valve and pulmonary trunk. It is triangular in form, and extends from the right […]

A Marvelous VAD Presentation from China

For every ACTION, there is an EQUAL and OPPOSITE REACTION. This theory impacts life’s varied circumstances, the CAUSE and EFFECT implication… Author / Editor: Co-Editor Anna Lou Villena 🙂 [10] Editor’s Note: This is an extraordinary PowerPoint presentation regarding VAD technology.  It is an eye-opener and definitely well worth viewing. Click image above to view […]